The malaria parasites of man include four species: Plasmodium vivax, the causative agent of tertiam malaria, Plasmodium malariae, the causative agent of quartan malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of tropical (falciparum) malaria, Plasmodium Ovale, the causative agent of tertian Ovale-malaria.
Morphology of plasmodium
Blood levels of plasmodium are as follows
1. young trophozoites (ring kinds)
2. escalating trophozoites
3. mature trophozoites
4. mature schizonts
The merozoite is the youngest sort of the parasite, showing as the end result of the splitting of a mature schizont. It is spherical or oval and smaller in dimensions (1-2 micrometer). The merozoites is the youngest sort of the parasite, showing as the consequence of the splitting of a mature schizont. It is spherical or oval and smaller in sizing (1-2 micrometer). The merozites is composed of cytoplasm and a nucleus. Merozites penetrate into the erythrocytes and give rise to asexual sorts of the parasites. The young trophozoite (ring-sort stage) grows more substantial and a vacoule appears in its cytoplasm. At this phase the malaria parasite has irregular contours movement. As it grows, a pigment appears inside it (a solution of hemoglobin breakdown) in the form of dim-brown spots. The experienced schizont becomes rounded and pulls in its pseudopodia by the time of complete merulation, occupying practically the total erythrocytes. The nucleus and cytoplasm divide and variety from 6 to 24 merozoites (it depends on the species of the parasite). The pigment accumulates in the heart in a compact clump. The erythrocytes are ruined by merozoites. The merozoites release into the blood plasma. Some of them yet again penetrate into erythrocytes. The gametocytes are sex cells and are subdivided into woman (macrogametocytes) and male (microgametocytes) cells. The macrogametocytes are 12-14 micrometer, their nuclei are compact. The microgametocytes are more compact, their nuclei are substantial.
Daily life cycle
The existence cycle consists of sexual phase (sporogony) in the mosquito (Anopheles) and asexual phase (schizogony) in human beings, Male is an intermediate host and mosquito is a definitive host. The daily life cycle passes 3 stages: two in gentleman: “Exoerythrocytic schizogony” (liver phases) and “Erythrocytic schizogony” (blood phases) a single in mosquito: “Sporogony”
Exoerythrocytic schizogony (liver stage)
1. Mosquito bites man, will take blood food and injects sporozoites from its salivary gland into the blood.
2. Sporozoites journey through blood to the liver, multiply asexually to kind merozoites, which upon liver mobile rupture, Merozoites are unveiled into the bloodstream and infect erythrocytes.
Erythrocytic schizogony (blood period)
1. Merozoites enter the erythrocytes, forming a ring-like trophozoite. Experienced trophozoites asexually divide to sort schizonts.
2. Schizont develops into merozoites, then lyse the erythrocytes membrane, top to periodic paroxysms of sickness due to resultant parasitemia. P.Ovale P.Vivax, P. Falciparum- membrane lysis in 48 several hours, P.malariae- membrane lysis in 72 several hours.
3. Some merozoites are formulated into macrogametocytes and microgametocytes.
1. Mosquito ingests gametocytes with blood meal
2. Gametocytes enter mosquito gut.
3. Zygote, shaped from fertilization, invades intestine wall to kind an oocyst inside of 24 several hours next ingestion.
4. Sporozoites are formed, unveiled into the abdomen, migrate to salivary glands, then injected into human with blood food.
The incubatory interval in tertian malaria lasts from 10 days to 11 months in quartan malaria, from 21 to 42 times, and in tropical malaria, from 9 to 16 days. A malarial attack is manufactured by end result of the physique reaction to protein substances showing in the blood because of to erythrocyte dissociation. The most attribute symptom of malaria is fever. Other popular signs and symptoms included anemia, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly.
Laboratory diagnosis includes microscopy of slim and thick films blood smears stained and recognition of the distinct levels of the parasite (trophozoites, schizonts, gametocytes).
Malaria may possibly be prevented by chemo-prophylaxis and personal protective measures against the mosquito vector (Anopheles).